Unambiguous dhyānas of Viṣṇu with Sarasvatī and Lakṣmī in the Assamese tradition

The dhyānas here are quoted from The Kamarupa School of Dharmashastra by Naliniranjan Sharma. The bolded portions indicate the unambiguous mention of Sarasvatī and Lakṣmī.

First dhyāna(dhyāna mantra of Viṣṇu/Vāsudeva of the Viṣṇujāgara/Gonda Cauphari Sabha) from the paddhati of Shri Nabin Chandra Sharma of Dipila village in Mangaldai

oṃ vāsudeva śuddhasphaṭika saṃkāśaṃ ajānulamvita vanamālopaśobhitaṃ।
pītavastrayugadharaṃ kuṇḍalāṃkṛta karṇāpāniyugalaṃ śrīvatsakaustubhoraskam॥
kirītināṃ yajñopavītinaṃ dakṣiṇakarābhyā mūrdhādhaḥ krameṇadhṛtagadā padmam।
vāmakarābhyāntathaivadhṛta cakra śaṃkhaṃ dakṣiṇa pārṣvasthayā suvarṇavarṇayā lakṣmyā sevyamānaṃ॥
vāmapārśvasthayā śiriṣa varṇayā sarasvatyā sevitaṃ pañcavarṇopeta vanamā ānvitam।

kundakusumābham śrīvatsa vakṣasamaruṇa kaustabhagrīvam॥
pūrvādidalastha saṃkarṣaṇapradyumnāniruddha nārāyaṇa brahmāviṣṇu narasiṃhavarāha sametam।
garuḍadhvajaṃ garuḍādhirūḍhaṃ sūryamaṇḍala candramaṇḍala vahnimaṇḍalopari śītāṣṭadala padmopaviṣṭaṃ॥



evam dhyātvā oṃ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya namaḥ।


Second dhyāna quoted from a paddhati preserved in the Gaudhati University Library

vāsudevaṃ viśuddhasphaṭikaprabhaṃ anavaratasāmavedādi gāyanotphulla mukha kamalaṃ।
pītavastradvaya dharaṃ caturbhujaṃ dakṣiṇordhakaradhṛta kṛṣṇavarṇagadaṃ dakṣiṇādhakaradhṛta śuklapadmam।
vāmordhvakaradhṛta sūryaśatasamaprabha cakraṃ।
vāmādhakaradhṛta pūrṇacandrābhaśaṃkhaṃ।
dakṣiṇa pārśvasthayā suvarṇavarṇayā lakṣmyā sevyamānaṃ।
vāmapārśvasthayā śirīṣa varṇayā sarasvatyāsevyamānam॥

yajñopavītinaṃ pañcavarṇopeta vanamālānvitaṃ।
kundakusumābha śrīvatsa vakṣamaruṇa varṇa kaustubhagrīvaṃ
sauvarṇa kirīṭa kuṇḍalāṃgada kaṃkaṇāṅmgurīya keyuramaṇḍitaṃ।
hṛdi muktāhārānvitam।
pūrvādi dalastha saṃkarṣaṇa pradyumnāniruddha nārāyaṇa brahmā viṣṇunarasiṃhavarāha sametaṃ।
garuḍadhvajaṃ garuḍādhirūḍhaṃ sūryamaṇḍala candramaṇḍala vahnimaṇḍalopari śītāṣṭadala padmopaviṣṭaṃ॥

iti dhyātvā

This is acknowledged by Gaudiyas in the Vedanta-Shyamantaka well also,as noted in the following

section(especially the Gīḥ stotra of the Skanda Purana)

Gaṇapati as Brahman who humbles Vāyu Agni and other Gods and shows a Viśvarūpa form

This section is taken from the Gaṇeśa Purāṇa,11th chapter of the Krīḍā khaṇḍa. The relevant one is being posted here

इन्द्र उवाच:

न दृष्टो’स्य गुणोत्कर्षस्तावन्मान्यो भवेत्कथम्।
क उवाच:

ततो दिदेश वायुं स नयैनं व्योममण्डलम्।
तस्याज्ञानुपदं वायुर्युगान्तसदृशो ववौ।
आन्दोलयन्सर्वलोकं भ्रामयन् कुधरान्भृशम्॥
अकालप्रलयः किं नु प्रारब्धो लोकनाशनः।
इत्येवं भृशसंविग्ना ऋषयश्च चकम्पिरे॥
भग्ने वायौ तु संप्राह शुम्भाणं पाकशासनः।
दहैनं त्वं बटुं शीघ्रं द्रष्टव्या शक्तिरद्य ते।
तदाज्ञां शिरसा गुह्यं जगाम तमुषर्बुधः।
निर्दहन्निव त्रींल्लोकान्प्रलयानलसन्निभः॥
भस्मीकर्तुं दुमान्सर्वान्शोषयन्सर्वसागरान्।
तं दहन्तं जनान्सर्वान्दृष्ट्वा कश्यपनन्दनः।
तत्क्षणादगिलद्रोगी भेषजं गुटुकामिव।
गिलिते तादृशे वह्नौ क्रोधसंरक्तलोचनः॥
सहस्रलोचनो लोकां’लोकयत्सर्वलोचनैः।
तावद्ददर्श तं तत्र सहस्राधिकलोचनम्॥
असंख्यशीर्षमुकुटमनन्तश्रोत्रसंयुतम्।
अनन्तहस्तचरणमनन्तोदारविक्रमम्॥
शशिसूर्याग्निनयनं शिरस व्यापनभस्तलम्।
सप्तपातालचरणम् सप्तलोकैकमस्तकम्॥
असंख्यसूर्यसंकाशमसंख्येन्द्रसुसेवितम्।
असंक्श्यकेशसंयुक्तं नानाब्रह्माण्डरोमकम्॥
आमूलाग्राद्यथा वृक्षे भवन्त्यौदुम्बराणि वै।
औदुम्बरे वा मशकाः संख्यातीता भवन्ति हि॥
तथैवैकैकरोमाञ्चं संख्यातीताण्डसंयुतम्।
पस्यंस्तत्रवैकतरं भ्रान्तःशक्रो विवेश ह॥
पश्यन्ति स्म स तन्मध्ये त्रैलोक्यं सचराचरम्।
अरण्यकदलीकोशपत्रे पत्रे यथा फलम्॥
असंख्यातं जगत्तत्र पश्यति स्म शचीपतिः।
बभ्राम भ्रान्तचित्तो’सौ नालभन्निर्गमं ततः॥

indra uvāca:

na dṛṣṭo’sya guṇotkarṣastāvanmānyo bhavetkatham।
ka uvāca:

tato dideśa vāyuṃ sa nayainaṃ vyomamaṇḍalam।
tasyājñānupadaṃ vāyuryugāntasadṛśo vavau।
āndolayansarvalokaṃ bhrāmayan kudharānbhṛśam॥
akālapralayaḥ kiṃ nu prārabdho lokanāśanaḥ।
ityevaṃ bhṛśasaṃvignā ṛṣayaśca cakampire॥
bhagne vāyau tu saṃprāha śumbhāṇaṃ pākaśāsanaḥ।
dahainaṃ tvaṃ baṭuṃ śīghraṃ draṣṭavyā śaktiradya te।
tadājñāṃ śirasā guhyaṃ jagāma tamuṣarbudhaḥ।
nirdahanniva trīṃllokānpralayānalasannibhaḥ॥
bhasmīkartuṃ dumānsarvānśoṣayansarvasāgarān।
taṃ dahantaṃ janānsarvāndṛṣṭvā kaśyapanandanaḥ।
tatkṣaṇādagiladrogī bheṣajaṃ guṭukāmiva।
gilite tādṛśe vahnau krodhasaṃraktalocanaḥ॥
sahasralocano lokāṃ’lokayatsarvalocanaiḥ।
tāvaddadarśa taṃ tatra sahasrādhikalocanam॥
asaṃkhyaśīrṣamukuṭamanantaśrotrasaṃyutam।
anantahastacaraṇamanantodāravikramam॥
śaśisūryāgninayanaṃ śirasa vyāpanabhastalam।
saptapātālacaraṇam saptalokaikamastakam॥
asaṃkhyasūryasaṃkāśamasaṃkhyendrasusevitam।
asaṃkśyakeśasaṃyuktaṃ nānābrahmāṇḍaromakam॥
āmūlāgrādyathā vṛkṣe bhavantyaudumbarāṇi vai।
audumbare vā maśakāḥ saṃkhyātītā bhavanti hi॥
tathaivaikaikaromāñcaṃ saṃkhyātītāṇḍasaṃyutam।
pasyaṃstatravaikataraṃ bhrāntaḥśakro viveśa ha॥
paśyanti sma sa tanmadhye trailokyaṃ sacarācaram।
araṇyakadalīkośapatre patre yathā phalam॥
asaṃkhyātaṃ jagattatra paśyati sma śacīpatiḥ।
babhrāma bhrāntacitto’sau nālabhannirgamaṃ tataḥ॥

Basically there are two things happening in this section of this text(I am summarizing):

(1)Indra ordering Vayu and Agni to fetch him,and them displaying all their power and failing to move the boy like Vināyaka(not a single hair of Him moves,and Agni himself gets swallowed like a pill). He then himself goes out with His thousand eyes shining like fire to Vināyaka. This part echoes the 3rd and 4th khaṇḍa of the Kena Upaniṣad.

(2)A ‘universal vision’ of the great Vināyaka,who is brahmasvarūpa. He has more than a thousand eyes,uncountable ears and crowns,eyes of suns,moons and fiire and His hairs filling space,feet being the seven netherworlds,looking like uncountable suns,attended upon by uncountable Indras,and his bodily hairs were several brahmāṇdas…and Indra entered one of them saw the moving and unmoving beings in one of those brahmāṇdas and his mind started wandering and could not find his way out,and then he bowed to Vināyaka.

Steps in the making of the mahāprasāda of Jagannātha

  1. After ācamana,pādya and ācamana again,the naivedya is ritually purified before it can be offered to Śrīpuruṣottama. For the offering to Puruśottama only a small portion of the bhoga is taken out of all the earthen pots and placed in a metallic plate in front of the devatās of the ratnavedī. The steps of purification of the naivedya before it can be offered to the devatā are as follows.
  2. Vikṣaṇa(worshipper looks at the naivedya uttering the mūlamantra while placing the index and thumb finger of the right hand as a span on the forehead,while the rest forms a fist)
  3. Prokṣaṇa:With kuśa grass in the prokṣaṇī-pātra(vessel) he sprinkles the naivedya thrice with the asramantra(praṇava asurāntakacakrāya svāha,astrāya phaṭ)
  4. Abhirakṣaṇa:The cakramudrā is deployed and the mantra (praṇava) namaḥ sudarśanāya astrāya phaṭ is uttered,and the naivedya is protected
  5. Tālatraya and digbandhana
  6. Avaguṇṭhana:Performed with the appropriate mudrā.
  7. Pariśoṣaṇa:Using the vāyubīja yaṃ the impurities of the naivedya are dried up
  8. Dāhana:Using the agnibīja raṃ the defilement of human touch is burned up,thus making it fit to be offered
  9. Āplāvana:Using the bīja of the svādhiṣṭhāna cakra,the new nectarine naivedya is recreated now which is entirely different from the old naivedya
  10. Amṛtīkaraṇa:The naivedya is touched with the right hand of the worshipper,the mūlamantra recited 8 times and thus turned into amṛta. It is worshipped tulasī and candana.

Offering the naivedya to the devatā

The deity is requested to accept the naivedya with the following śloka:

devāsuramanuṣyāditṛpteḥ paramakāraṇam
nānāvidhamayaṃ/(var.idam) deva naivedyaṃ pratigṛhyatām

The mūlamatra is uttered with the devatā taking a few drops of water in the palm along with the words śrīkṛṣṇāya saṇgāya sarvātmane idaṃ naivedyam svāhā and water is sprinkled with kuśa grass.

The deity is requested to take the naivedya with the formula nivedayāmī bhagavate juṣanedaṃ havir hare and the tejas of the deity is imagined as entering into the mouth of the deity and a few drops is offered as āpośāna with the appropriate mantra(OṂ amṛtopastaraṇamasi svāhā)

After this the first five morsels of the naivedya is offered to the devatā just like it happens in the bhojana of any dvija jāti. (with the five set of mantras prānāya svāha,apānāya svāhā,vyānāya svāhā,udānāya svāha,samānāya svahā with praṇava prefixed).

The whole naivedya is then offered to the devatā with the naivedya mudrā/dravya mudrā with the mantra ṭhvauṃ namaḥ parāya avātmane aniruddhāya naivedyaṃ kalpayāmi.

The offered material to Jagannātha is next offered to Bhagavatī Vimalā as Her naivedya,and then only after that,it is known as Mahāprasāda.

All credit is to Gaya Charan Tripathi and his excellent work on Jagannātha:(Communication with God:The Daily Pūjā ceremony in the Jagannātha temple)

The old location of Jālandhara Pītha

Amongst the 51 śākta pīthas,the four most important are Kāmarūpa,Oḍḍiyāna,Jālandhara and Pūrṇagiri. The medieval importance of this can be gauged by this śloka:

rūpātītaṃ tu kāmākhyāṃ rūpaṃ pūrṇagirirmahāna।
pādaṃ jālandharaākhyāṃ tu piṇḍaṃ oḍraṃ prakīrtitaṃ।।

(Here Oḍḍiyāna has been concieved to be at Oḍra after the complete loss of the mūla Oḍḍīyāna even in memory to āstika writers,but that is another point to be noted in a different article).

This post is going to discuss the location of the historical Jālandhara pītha as per old historical refernces and relevant śāstra.(Note:The modern Devi Talab Mandir where Tripuramalini is worshipped is not the historical Jālandhara,and such lists which list the devi as such have little idea of the actual pitha/give only generic names for the devī like Caṇḍī)

Historical and the relevant śāstrīya references to Jālandhara pītha that allow us to locate the devīpīṭha with a low degree of ambiguity

  • Kumārīkhaṇḍa of Manthānabhairavatantra:idṛg jālandharaṃ pīṭhaṃ jvālāvvā tatra viśrutā(There is the famed mother Jvālā at Jālandhara pītha)
  • Abu’l Fazl in his Ai’n-I-Akbari notes about Jālandhara,Kāmākhya,Śāradā and Tulijā Bhavānī as four main pīthas and describes Jālandhara being near Nagarkot and the prescence of natural flames being the object of worship there.
  • Kalhaṇa in the 3rd taraṇga of the Rajatarangini alludes to the same general area of Kangra/Trigarta as being called Jālandhara/Jālandharāyaṇa
  • The importance of this pīṭha to Buddhists and their descriptions of travels to it leave no ambiguity as to which is the actual temple being referred to as the Jālandhara pītha.

Eranshahr’s encounter with Christiantiy

Thoughts of a Niyogi

Christianity is certainly not the first thing that comes to ones mind when Iran is mentioned. But the cult has had a long history there, and the extent of Christian subversion in Pre-Islamic Iran is an understudied topic. From the faith of captured Roman soldiers and traitors to that of the King of Kings’ inner circle, it is an intriguing story that deserves to be told.

The Beginning

The earliest encounters between the Iranians and Christianity occurred during the Arsacid Parthian Empire. Christian lore speaks of the Magi bringing gifts to the newborn Jesus and according to the Book of Acts, the first group of converts to Christianity included some Persians. Christian accounts of this period speak of numerous missions sent to the east and it is likely that they had some success in converting the well established Jewish community in Arsacid held Mesopotamia. In the border cities between the…

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मेधादक्षिणामूर्तिमन्त्रविधिः(कुछ बात श्री गीर्वाणेन्द्रसरस्वती विरचित प्रपञ्चसारसारसंग्रह से)

जो बात प्रपञ्चसारसारसंग्रह से नहीं है,वो Green highlight से है और् परम्परा भेद् के कारण मे है।

ब्रह्मा ऋषिः(वा शुकब्रह्म)।गायत्री चन्दः।मेधा दक्षिणामूर्तिर्देवता।मेधा बीजम्।स्वाहा शक्तिः।(अथवा:मेधा बीजम्।प्रज्ञा शक्तिः।स्वाहा कीलकं।)शड्दीर्घ न्यास(आं इत्यादि)।…प्रज्ञापादरहितो वा मन्त्रः।

कृष्णाष्टमिरारभ्य कृष्णचतुर्दशीपर्यन्त चत्वारिंशत्सहस्रं जपेत्।आज्येन दशांश पुरश्चरणहोम।लक्षं वा जपेत्,विष्ण्वालये वा पश्चिमद्वारशिवालये वा।अस्मिन्पक्षे क्षीरप्लुतशुद्धतिलैराज्येन पायसान्नेन वा दशांशं पुरश्चरणाहोमः।

ये सब करने के लिए मेधा दक्षिणामूर्ति मंत्र उपदेश(द्वाविंशाक्षर अथवा चतुर्विंशाक्षर) आवश्यक है। बिना मंत्रोपदेश से उपरोक्त कार्य करणीय नही है।

On right view,Buddhist-coloured deities and Hindu practice

Ths is a novice’s attempt to answer about why the practice of some deities:tArA,chinnamastA(to a small extent vajrayoginI too),vilAsinI also is soiterologically relevant:

[Edit:Please do not take this as some word of shAstra or AchAryavAkya or something,I am not any guru,I am just thinking my thoughts out loud after asking my question and trying to process what I got]

An example of animus Buddhists displayed to Hindu systems can be seen about. This ritual consumption of brahmin flesh(a huge NO in any Hindu system that will ever exist) stems from two sources:(1)A kApAlika background is suggestible,as noted by the offering of brahmapuShpa to gain power as recorded by the author(I am not saying that that system existed in toto like that at Adi Shankara’s time but it transmits some relevant information about a cult with similar practices) and (2)actual dvesha for brAhmaNas,the gurus and systemizers of a lot of the native systems in the first place from where they took our mantras from:Hence these deities under the influence of the Bauddha transmitters took on Bauddha dresses in various aspects(like Rishi,etc)

With deities worshipped by such people,how is it that our people gain mukti?Taking leads from this article suggested by the author of the Kamakotimandali blog suggests that without a proper understanding of the tattvic scheme,such Bauddha upAsakas in the 36 tattva scheme would attain at best Buddhi tattva,mahAdevIing the chintAmaNI she is, granting the sAdhakas according to their view. Or worse,worldly siddhi mainly only more often.

Another thing is that in Hindu views,the deity with the same iconography is interpreted differently. An example is here where the image which is considered that of Arya achala is interpreted as that of krodharAja rudra trampling some demonic yakSha. Sometimes the descriptions in the Astika version are superficially different(sarvasiddhi and sarvabuddhi rather than sarvabuddhaDAkinI).

So the transmissions which have come back to Hindus with that Buddhist dress have in key,a different understanding than the Buddhists of what they are worshipping+when they got back the tranmissions from those who achieved only siddhi,their correct understanding put them on higher states of AdhyAtma than the Bauddhas they got it from.(albeit coloured by the ‘shunya’ type of language they inherited)[because they could understand the tattvas better and the devI granted them a place in those higher tattvas]. Another core difference is a practical respect in terms of ritual to brahmins(in the bhojana anga of the Hindu method of attaining siddhi in mantras).

Addendum by @TheRajarshi:

1. The necromancy practices are still prevalent even among H Kapalika-s (few are there still) but neither done in public nor publicized.
2. The actual consumption is mostly a tokenism in ritual setting to gain powers. 3. The mention of “brahmin” is because brahmins were the ones who had the tapa-shakti, other Vs did not. Same way even today in H viracara when taking a kapalapatra one cannot take random one…. else there is no Shakti in it, and becomes useless. Specific type of kapalas are useful. Guru decides basd on nature of sadhaka/na. Same logic baudhas were using. A kapala of a an individual who was a good yogi/sadhaka is highly prized. Or a chandala for certain rituals.
3.The icons of baudha deities trampling on H (IMO) was result of assimilation + abhicara practices which each group was doing on the other. But by time of Kalacakra tantra the Baudhas had come full circle and accepted H deities without any modification/distortion – post-Islam.
4. Coming to practical upasana Vajrayanists also produced terrific siddhas (not lower level at all if one knows how to judge the level of a siddhi) as did Hindus.

Determination in daily mantrasādhanā

ihāsane śuṣyatu me śarīraṃ tvagasthimāṃsaṃ pralayaṃ ca yātu।
aprāpya bodhiṃ bahukalpadurlabhāṃ naivāsanāt kāyamataścaliṣyate॥

[Let my body dry up on this very seat,let the bones,skin and flesh perish,but without attaining the rare state of Buddhahood,never shall I leave this seat]
(From the Buddhacharita)

This can be taken in its Astika version as:
ihāsane śuṣyatu me śarīraṃ tvagasthimāṃsaṃ pralayaṃ ca yātu।
aprāpya siddhiṃ bahukalpadurlabhāṃ naivāsanāt kāyamataścaliṣyate॥

Here the Buddhahood conception is replaced by siddhi.

And about siddhi(from the text mantrayogasaṃhitā)

samādhirlayayogasya mahālaya itīritaḥ।
haṭhasya ca mahābodho yathāyogaparāyaṇaiḥ।
tathaiva mantrayogasya mahābhāvaḥ prakīrtitaḥ॥
dhyānādhikāraḥ samprokto yāvadvai tripuṭīsthitiḥ।
vilīnāyāṃ ca tasyāṃ vai mahābhāvasamudbhavaḥ॥
mantrasiddhyā devatāyāṃ vidhāya manaso layam।
tripuṭīnāśato yogī samādhimadhigacchati।
mano mantrastathā devo jñāyate prathamaṃ pṛthak।
tataḥ parasparaṃ tattajjñāne linaṃ prajāyate॥
dhyeya-dhyātṛ-dhyāna-rūpatripuṭīvilayo bhavet।
imāmavasthāṃ saṃprāpya sādhakeṣu prajāpate।
romodugasamastabdhā ca tathā”nandāśruvarṣaṇam॥
krameṇa ca manolīne samādhiḥ kila jāyate।
samādhinā bhavantyāśu kṛtyak^ityā hi sādhakāḥ।
mahābhāvopalabdhirhi mantrayoge’ntimaṃ phalam॥

And from the devīgītā:
yāvan manolayaṃ yāti devyāṃ samvidiṃ parvata।
tāvanadiṣṭamanuṃ mantrī japahomaiḥ samabhyaset॥

[The sādhaka must do japa and homa until manolaya has occured].

[The above post is inspired by a point Sri Mahendranath Gupta made in a book on him written by Swami Nityatmananda].




Āvaraṇas of Jagannātha as Kṛṣṇa in the Puri Śrīmandira

There are seven āvaraṇas(surrounding ‘layers’ of deities) around the main Jagannātha deity in the Puri temple. They are:

  1. The four playmates of Kṛṣṇa
  2. Aṅgas of mantra
  3. Eight wives of Kṛṣṇa
  4. Parents,brother,sister of Kṛṣṇa,gopas and gopīs
  5. Five Kalpavṛkṣas
  6. Certain bhaktas of Kṛṣṇa
  7. 10 dikpālas

First āvaraṇa:Contains Dāmā,Sudāmā,Vasudāmā and Kiṅkiṇi(similar to Kṛṣna,adolescent,carrying flute and ball)
Second āvaraṇa:Contains the āṇgas conjoined with the corresponding parts of the main mantra(arcakāya svāhā, kṛṣṇāya hṛdayāya namaḥ, govindāya śirase svāhā…ultimately 9 members in this circle. The dhyānas of the pallavas are given in the Nīlādrīmahodaya(eg:svāhā is red-complexion,dressed in red and having a crown on head and two lotuses in hands,namaḥ being white complexioned,three eyed and basically like the common form of Bhuvaneśvarī in appearance otherwise)
Third āvaraṇa:Rukmiṇī,Satyabhāmā,Naganjitā,Sunandā,Mitravindā,Sulakṣaṇā,Jāmbavatī,Suśīlā(lotus and chowrie in their hands)
Fourth āvaraṇa:Vāsudeva,Devakī,Nanda,Yaśodā(the fathers with jñānamudrā and abhayamudrā,the mothers having a varadamudrā and a pot full of pāyasa),Balabhadra(halamusaladhārin,with quivering eyes under the effect of alcohol),Subhadrā(varābhaya,like hot gold or dark green),gopas and gopīs with flutes,cane sticks,horns,etc
Fifth āvaraṇa:The kalpavṛkṣas Mandāra,Santāna,Pārijāta,Kalpadruma,Haricandana(the last one is placed in the centre under which Kṛṣna is)
Sixth āvaraṇa:nityabhaktas:Nārada,Parvata,Uddhava,Akrūra,Niṣaṭha,Dāruka,Viṣvaksena,Vainateya(Garuḍa)
Seventh āvaraṇa:Indra,agni,Yama,Nairṛta,Varuṇa,Vāyu,Kubera,Īśāna,Ananta,Brahman

On Jagadguru Pītāmbara Siddhāntavāgīśa,the most famous exponent of the Kāmarūpa school of Dharmaśāstra

On Pītāmbara Siddhāntavāgīśa’s life:Gleanings from his own works

Pītāmbara Siddhāntavāgīśa,the most famous exponent of the Kāmarūpa school of Dharmaśāstra is,in the tradition of many Sanskrit authors,quite rectinent on his personal life. However he mentions the following details

  • Dāyakaumudī:He was born at a place in the Southern part of the Lauhitya(Brahmaputra)
  • He was in a large part taught by his father(the benedictory verse of the Śrāddhakaumudī)
  • He was a smārta devotee of Nārāyaṇa and pays obeisances to Śiva,Durgā and Sūrya also. This last bit can be gleaned from the Daśakarmakaumudī where the term ‘śrīvāsudevamārādhya…’ is used.
  • He mentions in the end of his Śuddhikaumudī that he accomplished this work in 1534 śakābda(1612 CE)
  • In the colophon to his Grahaṇakaumudī he mentions that he was patronized by Lakṣmīnārāyaṇa of Kāmarūpa.

Siddhāntavāgīśa’s life:Gleanings from other sources

  • Bṛhatrājavaṃśāvalī states that Cilārāya the brother of Naranārāyaṇa brought Puruṣottama Vidyāvāgīśa(the author of the grammatical work Ratnamālā) and Pītāmbara from Gauḍa
  • He was also said to be a court poet of Naranārāyaṇa and probably served in the court of Balinārāyaṇa as well.
  • Maṇgaladair Buranji introduces him as the Dīkṣāguru of the king of Daraṇga,who donated a large amount of property in his province and his descendants still live there.
  • Nagendranath Vasu in his Social History of Kamarupa states that his kaumudīs were followed by the kings,citing the Bṛhatrājavaṃśāvalī,which noted that those who violated the rules and regulations of society as laid down for the various varṇas and āśramas of human society and life by Jagadguru Pītāmbara Siddhāntavāgīśa were punished by the king.

Works of Pītāmbara Siddhāntavāgīśa

He is traditionally said to have composed 18 kaumudīs(digests of smṛtiśāstra),which are listed popularly as;

  • Daṇḍakaumudī
  • Pretakaumudī
  • Vṛṣotsargakaumudī
  • Pramāṇakaumudī
  • Śrāddhakaumudī
  • Durgotsavakaumudī
  • Ekādaśīkaumudī
  • Śuddhikaumudī
  • Pratiṣṭhākaumudī
  • Saṃkalpakaumudī
  • Prāyaścittakaumudī
  • Tīrthakaumudī
  • Pañcadīkṣākaumudī
  • Sambandhakaumudī
  • Tithikaumudī
  • Dāyakaumudī
  • Ācārakaumudī

Hiramoni Goswami(on whose introduction this article is based) cites Taranath Goswami’s list as follows

  • Dāyakaumudī
  • Śrāddhakaumudī
  • Malamāsakaumudī
  • Nirṇayakaumudī
  • Sambandhakaumudī
  • Tattvakaumudī
  • Āhnikakaumudī
  • Vivādakaumudī
  • Aśaucakaumudī
  • Tithikaumudī
  • Pretakaumudī
  • Śuddhikaumudī
  • Pañcayajñakaumudī
  • Dīkṣakaumudī
  • Janmāṣṭamīkaumudī
  • Vṛṣotsargakaumudī
  • Saṃskārakaumudī

Hiramoni Goswami also cites Ghanakanta Sarma’s list of Pītāmbara Siddhāntavāgīśa’s kaumudīs which runs into 28

  • Dāyakaumudī
  • Śrāddhakaumudī
  • Malamāsakaumudī
  • Nirṇayakaumudī
  • Sambandhakaumudī
  • Tattvakaumudī
  • Āhnikakaumudī
  • Vivādakaumudī
  • Aśaucakaumudī
  • Tithikaumudī
  • Pretakaumudī
  • Śuddhikaumudī
  • Pañcayajñakaumudī
  • Vṛṣotsargakaumudī
  • Dīkṣākaumudī
  • Janmāṣṭamīkaumudī
  • Saṃkrāntikaumudī
  • Daśakarmakaumudī
  • Tīrthakaumudī
  • Pramāṇakaumudī
  • Patrakaumudī
  • Prāyaścittakaumudī
  • Jyotiṣkaumudī
  • Daṇḍakaumudī
  • Divyakaumudī
  • Sākṣyakaumudī
  • Vyavahārakaumudī
  • Kṛtyakaumudī

Some other works of his that are unpublished amongst digests are Grahaṇakaumudī,etc.(apparently the recently published Śivarātrikaumudī is a part of Durgotsavakaumudī:oral communication). He also is credited with writing commentaries on Vācaspati Miśra’s Dvaitanirṇaya(Dvaitanirṇayadīpikā) and on the tantric digest Śāradātīlaka(Guḍārthaprakāśikā). Very few of his works have been published in print.